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Archives for : novembre2013

A New and Aggressive Strain of HIV Is Spreading Across West Africa

See on Scoop.itVirology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca


A newly discovered strain of HIV is spreading across West Africa. What’s worse is that it’s particularly aggressive–and causes significantly faster progression to AIDS than other strains.


See on gizmodo.com

Intestinal bacterial microflora modulates the anticancer immune effects of cyclophosphamide

See on Scoop.itAmazing Science

Cyclophosphamide is one of several clinically important cancer drugs whose therapeutic efficacy is due in part to their ability to stimulate antitumor immune responses. Studying mouse models, we demonstrate that cyclophosphamide alters the composition of microbiota in the small intestine and induces the translocation of selected species of Gram-positive bacteria into secondary lymphoid organs. There, these bacteria stimulate the generation of a specific subset of “pathogenic” T helper 17 (pTH17) cells and memory TH1 immune responses. Tumor-bearing mice that were germ-free or that had been treated with antibiotics to kill Gram-positive bacteria showed a reduction in pTH17 responses, and their tumors were resistant to cyclophosphamide. Adoptive transfer of pTH17 cells partially restored the antitumor efficacy of cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that the gut microbiota help shape the anticancer immune response.


See on phenomena.nationalgeographic.com

Printing the Human Body: How It Works and Where It Is Headed

See on Scoop.itCuriosopernatura

The rise of 3D printing has introduced one of the most ground-breaking technological feats happening right now. The most exciting part, though, doesn’t have anything to do with printing electronics or fancy furniture, but in producing human tissues, otherwise known as bioprinting. While it is still in its infancy, the future of bioprinting looks very bright and will eventually result in some major advances for society, whilst also saving billions for the economy this is spent on research and development.


See on www.kurzweilai.net

Project ranks billions of drug interactions

See on Scoop.ithealthcare technology

For decades, drug development was mostly a game of trial and error, with brute-force candidate screens throwing up millions more duds than winners. Researchers are now using computers to get a head start. By analysing the chemical structure of a drug, they can see if it is likely to bind to, or ‘dock’ with, a biological target such as a protein. Such algorithms are particularly useful for finding potentially toxic side effects that may come from unintended dockings to structurally similar, but untargeted, proteins.

Last week, researchers presented a computational effort that assesses billions of potential dockings on the basis of drug and protein information held in public databases. The result, a website called Drugable (drugable.com) that is backed by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), is still in testing, but it will eventually be available for free, allowing researchers to predict how and where a compound might work in the body, purely on the basis of chemical structure


more at original : http://www.nature.com/news/project-ranks-billions-of-drug-interactions-1.14245


See on www.nature.com

Ultra-Deep Sequencing of Intra-host Rabies Virus Populations during Cross-species Transmission

See on Scoop.itCuriosopernatura

These results suggest that analysis of rare variants within a viral population may yield clues to ancestral genomes and identify rare variants that have the potential to be selected for if environment conditions change.


See on www.plosntds.org

Trees Can Capture Up To 60% Of All Particulate Matter From Road Exhaust

See on Scoop.itCuriosopernatura

Trees planted along a city street screen residents from sun and noise—and from tiny particles that pollute urban air. A new study shows that tree leaves can capture more than 50% of the particulate matter that’s a prime component of urban pollution and a trigger for disease (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/es404363m).

 

In urban settings, particulates come primarily from car exhaust, brake pad wear, and road dust and can contain metals, such as iron and lead. The Environmental Protection Agency classifies particulates in three size ranges: less than 1 μm (PM1), up to 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and up to 10 μm (PM10) in diameter. These particles are tiny enough for people to inhale and can exacerbate heart disease, asthma, and other health conditions.

 

Researchers want to understand how trees capture particles so that urban planners might eventually take advantage of these natural tools for mitigating pollution. However, modeling this process is challenging because air flow and particle movement on a street follow complex fluid dynamics. Models have shown wildly varying results for just how much particulate matter trees can trap, with some as low as 1% and others as high as 60%.


See on cen.acs.org

HIV virus spread and evolution studied through computer modeling

See on Scoop.itCuriosopernatura


Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory are investigating the complex relationships between the spread of the HIV virus in a population (epidemiology) and the actual, rapid evolution of the virus (phylogenetics) within each patient’s body.

 

We have developed novel ways of estimating epidemics dynamics such as who infected whom, and the true population incidence of infection versus mere diagnoses dates,” said Thomas Leitner, principal investigator. “Obviously, knowledge about these things is important for public health monitoring, decision making and intervention campaigns, and further to forensic investigations.”

 

The team models the uninfected population using traditional differential equations on the computer; this is done for computational speed, because an agent-based component is much more demanding. Once a person is infected, he/she becomes an “agent” in computer modeling terms, and the model starts following their behavior individually, as well as the viral HIV evolution within the person.

 

read original for more: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-11-hiv-virus-evolution.html


See on medicalxpress.com

MERS Coronavirus Could Be A Slowly Growing Epidemic

See on Scoop.itVirology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca


The WHO has been informed of four new cases of MERS-CoV and a new study has made the case for the coronavirus becoming a


See on www.redorbit.com

Investigative Genetics | Full text | The man behind the fingerprints: an interview with Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys

See on Scoop.itCuriosopernatura

In this interview we talk with Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys about DNA fingerprinting, his wider scientific career, and the past, present and future of forensic DNA applications.


See on www.investigativegenetics.com

Using Health Information Technology to Engage Patients in their Care

See on Scoop.itCuriosopernatura

Patient engagement, defined as the process of placing patients at the center and in control of their own healthcare, is becoming a chief healthcare priority

Concurrently, a number of national information infrastructure initiatives are targeting increased patient engagement and the design of health information systems that improve the availability of health information and integrate it in meaningful ways for patients.  So far, these technology goals have been advanced primarily through the design of personal health records (PHRs), patient portals, electronic health records (EHRs), and health information exchanges (HIEs).  However, we remain far from achieving the goal of truly engaging patients in their care.

Generation and exchange of health data with patients is a requirement for Stage 3 EHR meaningful use incentives. Patients are entitled to an electronically generated copy of the record of their encounters with providers. 

 

Sharing provider-generated data with patients is expected to promote patient engagement and accountability, but our own experiences suggest that the data that are being shared are currently a mixed blessing.  For example, one encounter report took the form of a 6-page document in which the vast majority of information was copied and pasted from previous encounters and in which there were several factual errors. The errors will be discussed with the provider during the next visit.

 

Certainly the report got our attention; whether empowerment will result remains an open question.  On another occasion, although the visit itself had included making decisions about future treatment, the plan was not mentioned in the document, leaving the patient to rely on her own memory and notes.

 The National eHealth Collaborative Technical Expert Panel recommends fully integrating patient-generated data (e.g., home monitoring of daily weights, blood glucose, or blood pressure readings) into the clinical workflow of healthcare providers

Although patients want this type of involvement, we have only begun to address their wishes and concerns.  In the next sections, we summarize the current status of several potential building blocks to achieving patient engagement goals and emphasize the role of the nurse informaticist as fundamental to the process.

 

more at the original : http://ojni.org/issues/?p=2848

 


See on ojni.org

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